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Scanning Electron Microscope EBSD / KOSSEL Imaging

EBSD can be used for crystal orientation mapping, defect studies, phase identification, grain boundary, morphology studies, regional heterogeneity investigations, material discrimination, microstrain mapping, and using complimentary techniques, physico-chemical identification.

Experimentally EBSD is conducted using a SEM equipped with a backscatter diffraction camera that records faint Kikuchi bands. This corresponds to each of the lattice diffracting planes and can be indexed individually by the Miller indices of the diffracting plane which formed it.

The bands formed can also be analysed to show the deformation present within the material: pattern blurring gives an indication of the plastic strain within the crystal and small rotations of the pattern (compared to a perfect crystal at this orientation) indicate elastic strain.

Cameras with good sensitivity are required for performing a fast acquisition duty cycle over 100 fps. Reduction in beam current / increased duty cycle can be achieved with optimized camera coupling and scintillator absorption. EBSD cameras can be upgraded to digitize Kossel diffraction patterns that will lead to subsequent structural / strain analysis.

Scanning electron microscope EBSD camera / KOSSEL imaging
Scanning Electron Microscope EBSD / KOSSEL Imaging

TEM - Transmission Electron Microscope Imaging

The TEM is used heavily in both material science / metallurgy and biological sciences.
In both cases the specimens must be very thin and able to withstand the high vacuum present inside the instrument.

Electrons are transmitted through an ultra thin specimen, interacting with the specimen as it passes through it.

An image is formed from the electrons transmitted through the specimen, magnified and focused by an electron lens and appears on an imaging a fluorescent screen coupled to a high resolution CCD camera.

Spatial resolution and dynamic range are important because of high intensity distribution across the image especially during diffraction experiments. The ability to adapt speed of acquisition and dynamic range from 12 to 16 bit is required.

Very high resolution is usually required in order to get as close as possible to the film resolution.
Fibre optic coupling combined with proprietary scintillator deposition allows optimum detective quantum efficiency and optimum resolution to be achived up to >200 kV operation.

TEM camera - Transmission electron microscope imaging
Transmission Electron Microscope Imaging

TEM Recommend products:

X-ray VHR camera

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Plasma Diagnostic

EUV / VUV detectors are used for calculating the fractional abundance of ions for hot plasmas with different electron temperatures and electron densities. They are used to characterize wavelengths and emissivity versus temperature of the brightest spectral lines emitted by the ions wavelengths longer than 45 Å.

ITER plasmas will be analyzed in selected EUV lines, similar to the space-based instruments routinely used to study temperatures, emission measures and motions of 0.1–2 keV solar coronal plasmas.

It is important to mach the detector yield over the entire spectral range whilst maintaining good spatial as well as temporal resolution. It is possible to use direct and indirect detection.

Direct detection is achieved by selecting back thinned CCDs in order to optimize quantum efficiency in the range of 100 eV and above. With a band gap of 3.5 eV on average, each photon is well discriminated, however coping with bright signals can be issue.

Indirect detection can be used with either a MCP or phosphor screen assembly read out by a CCD detector with better compromise on dynamic range.

Plasma diagnostic
Plasma Diagnostic

EUV / DUV Lithography, Source, Optics and Resin Characterization

The semiconductor industry roadmap uses shorter wavelength light sources to produce smaller feature sizes on processors as well as on memory components. Wavelength ranging from 248 nm to 193 nm are currently used to produce feature sizes < 100 nm.
The next generation include EUV sources which use 13.5 nm for printing feature size as small as 32 nm.

A source with very good brightness is needed for maintaining production throughput similar to that of DUV techniques. Therefore, EUV and UXV CCD detectors with good UV sensitivity and good dynamic range are necessary to cope with pulsed sources that are used to characterize resin, prior to mask manufacturing.

EUV sources can produce an important amount of debris so it important that that the CCD detectors withstand over exposures without saturation / bleeding artefacts as well as potential contamination from debris coming from the plasma generation.

Large area cameras from 13x13mm up to 24x36mm can be used with frame rate up to 5ps at full resolution.

EUV / VUV lithography, source, optics and resin characterization
EUV / DUV Lithography, Source, Optics and Resin Characterization

Astronomy / Diffraction limited CCD Imaging

Recent technological changes in CCD cameras now permit short exposures to be taken with negligible read out noise, allowing a high speed stream of images to be captured. This can result in thousands of quick short exposures being saved for subsequent post processing.

This technique uses a bright star nearby the object to be observed, and calculation of the Strehl number of the reference star in each image taken. A selection algorithm drops images that fall below the minimum and those images that meet the selection criteria are used and this may be as little as 1% to 10% of the data stream.

These selected images are combined by shifting and co-adding the sequence to produce diffraction limited image of the object being observed. The resultant image has been corrected for the turbulence of the atmosphere. This technique has also been called ” LUCKY IMAGING”.

Associated techniques are “speckle interferometry”.

Astronomy / Lucky Imaging
Astronomy / Diffraction limited CCD Imaging

Streak Camera read out

Streak Cameras are used for characterization of fast temporal events down to femtosecond range, and routinely down to picosecond range. A temporal profile of a light pulse is converted into a spatial profile, by time-varying deflection of the light across the width of camera.

National Ignition Facilities, Synchrotrons, telecom industry as well as well the plasma physics and ultras fast spectroscopy community are using streak cameras with direct fibre optic coupling CCDs in order to record streak patterns directly from the streak tube.

Excellent spatial resolution, must be delivered by the CCD read out in order to exceed traditional film performance. Streak tubes usually have 1,000:1 dynamic range, therefore cameras must also have good dynamic range. With MCP image intensification, the low light levels may be amplified few 100 to 1000 fold, hence the requirements to cope with overexposure in case of saturation artefacts.

In the absence of MCP, the camera must have good sensitivity. Fibre optic coupling with no demagnification is then the best possible option for collecting the light emitted of the streak tube phosphor screen.

Streak camera read out
Streak Camera read out

Single Molecule Fluorescence Imaging

Single Molecule emission spectra, lifetime, and intensity deliver specific information about the molecule location. 
The physical properties of materials such as lateral or rotational diffusion, conformational studies including protein folding can be studied using single molecule fluorescence technique.

Combined with a confocal microscope set up, SMF is capable of mapping both the location and orientation of single molecules, observing orientation and intensity changes over time down nanometer range.

It is important for the detector to record fast sequences at low intensity as the emission from single fluorescent molecules could be weak and changing rapidly over time.

Subtle intensity changes are usually recorded over a large background, this translates into good dynamic range requirements for the camera on top of high sensitivity, fast shuttering capability and rapid image transfer to a host PC.

Single molecule fluorescence imaging
Single Molecule Fluorescence Imaging

Single Molecule Fluorescence Recommend products:

T1000 camera FDI camera

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Forensics Imaging

UV sensitive CCD detectors are used for recording UV reflectance of untreated fingerprints, as well as fingerprints that have only been processed with cyanoacrylate fuming (superglue evaporation).

Good sensitivity is often required for detecting faint luminol treated stains.The cameras are used with a narrow band pass filter which will select the UV response only above the visible background.

High resolution sensors, typically over 1 megapixel, are required for sampling specific finger print details. Image enhancement tools like Fast Fourier Transform and image subtraction that allow you to quickly identify your images.

The cameras are incorporated into portable equipment, which includes a UV source, a digital recorder (labtop), a specific high transmission UV lens and a real time UV sensitive camera.

Laboratory equipment will use more specific UV optics, mounted onto a microscope for extensive research, comparative analysis.

Forensics imaging
Forensics Imaging

Recommend products:

T1000 camera

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TEM camera EBSD camera single molecule fluorescence SWIR camera

TEM EBSD SWIR cameras and scientific Detector Systems

Thema : TEM camera - EBSD camera - single molecule fluorescence - SWIR camera.

Photonic Science Limited - TEM SWIR EBSD camera Single molecule fluorescence and Scientific detector systems